The oldest modern human remains in Europe were discovered in the "Cave With Bones" in present day Romania. The remains are approximately 42,000 years old and as Europe’s oldest remains of Homo sapiens, they may represent the first such people to have entered the continent. But the earliest written evidence of people living in the territory of the present-day Romania comes from Herodotus in book IV of his Histories (Herodotus) written 440 BCE, where he writes about the Getae tribes.
Dacians, considered a part of these Getae, were a branch of Thracians that inhabited Dacia (corresponding to modern Romania, Moldova and northern Bulgaria). The Dacian kingdom reached its maximum expansion during King Burebista, between 82BC - 44 BC, and soon came under the scrutiny of the neighbouring Roman Empire. After the assassination of Burebista, Dacia split into 4 or 5 smaller kingdoms, the Romans conquering Moesia by 29 BC. The Dacian Wars, between 87 AD - 106 AD ended with the victory of the Romans, and the transforming of the core of the kingdom into the province of Roman Dacia.