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 Andrew II of Hungary (1205–1235)

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Join date : 2010-08-26

PostSubject: Andrew II of Hungary (1205–1235)   Thu Aug 26, 2010 8:09 pm

He granted the Burzenland (in Transylvania) to the Teutonic Knights. In 1225, Andrew II expelled the Teutonic Knights from Transylvania, hence Teutonic Order had to transfer to the Baltic sea. In 1224, Andrew issued the Diploma Andreanum which unified and secured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons. It is considered the first Autonomy law in the world.[37]

He led the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1217. He set up the largest royal army in the history of Crusades (20,000 knights and 12,000 castle-garrisons). The Golden Bull of 1222 was the first constitution in Continental Europe. It limited the king's power. The Golden Bull — the Hungarian equivalent of England’s Magna Carta — to which every Hungarian king thereafter had to swear, had a twofold purpose: to reaffirm the rights of the lesser nobles of the old and new classes of royal servants (servientes regis) against both the crown and the magnates, and to defend the rights of the whole nation against the crown by restricting certain powers of the crown and legalizing refusal to obey its unlawful/unconstitutional commands (the ius resistendi). The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament (parlamentum publicum). Hungary became the first country where the parliament had supremacy over the crown. The most important legal ideology and legislative guideline was the Doctrine of the Holy Crown.

Important points of the Doctrine: The sovereignty belongs to the nation (the Holy Crown). The members of the Holy Crown are the citizens of the Crown's lands. None can reach full power in the kingdom. The nation shares political power with the ruler. "Politically minority opinions cannot rule over majority". (Which meant: The Doctrine was opposed to tyranny and oligarchy).
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PostSubject: Re: Andrew II of Hungary (1205–1235)   Sat Oct 09, 2010 9:39 am

Andrew II the Jerosolimitan (Hungarian: Jeruzsálemi II András/Endre, Croatian: Andrija II. Arpadovic Slovak: Ondrej, Serbian: Андрија II) (c. 1177 – 21 September 1235) was King of Hungary[1] (1205–1235). He was the younger son of King Béla III of Hungary, who invested him with the government of the Principality of Halych. However, the boyars of Halych rebelled against his rule and expelled the Hungarian troops. Following their father's death, Andrew continuously conspired against his brother, King Emeric of Hungary who had to grant him the government of Croatia and Dalmatia. When his brother and his infant son died, Andrew ascended the throne and started to grant royal domains to his partisans. He participated in the Fifth Crusade but he could not achieve any major military success. He was obliged to issue the Golden Bull confirming the privileges of the noblemen of Hungary and later he was also obliged to confirm the special privileges of the clergy. During his long reign, the central power and royal authority potentially weakened. He had several quarrels with his sons.

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Andrew II of Hungary (1205–1235)
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